A new form of insulin-dependent diabetes has been recognised, occurring in patients
with cancers who are treated with checkpoint inhibitors. Checkpoint inhibitors are
monoclonal antibodies that block checkpoint molecules—such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated
protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1)—and have revolutionised cancer treatment
because of their ability to improve survival in a growing number of cancers.1 Checkpoint
molecules are expressed by T cells and are essential for maintenance of immunological
tolerance by preventing the unimpeded activation of T cells.
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